I’m cleaning up and restructuring inter

I’m cleaning up and restructuring internet and social media accounts under my name or my business names. Several hundred identified trolls and impostors signed into my business accounts are being purged. If you can’t find my blogs, pages, sites, photos or videos anymore, just talk to me on the beach. FYI, I have agreed to help with the usfws-side of the hawksbill sea turtle dawn patrol for another year, and we are ramping up our activities for another awesome season. Rick


Bulk Email for Conservation Groups

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Bulk Email for Conservation Groups

Introduction to Bulk Email

There are right ways and wrong ways to communicate by email. Email spam is to be avoided by conservation organizations. Your list of members and constituents is a precious resource. States began enacting anti-spam legislative by defining certain volumes of email sent in a single transmission, and software designers followed with filters that would block an email with more than “X” number of addresses. Organizations attempting to send an email newsletter to a membership core of 50 members found many of their members blocked by their email software. The U.S. Congress and many foreign governments entered the scene around the year 2000 with a different approach to email spam. Wikipedia articles provide a fairly good overview of anti-spam laws.


Bulk Email Software

When dealing with a large email list of hundreds of addresses, specialized software is useful in complying with U.S. and international anti-spam laws. These software programs allow the addressee to update their personal information, and to “opt-in” and “opt-out”. Some bulk mail programs are free, but restrict the user to sending a limited number of bulk email messages per month. Some bulk email programs allow an organization’s newsletter to be published on a blogging website and then bulk-mailed to the membership list.

Listed below are examples of the bulk email programs being used by local and conservation-type organizations:

Constant Contact

Maui Dreams Dive Company

Maui Ocean Center

National Marine Sanctuary Foundation

NOAA Fisheries



The 5 Gyres Institute

USA National Phenology Network

USFWS Endangered Species


The Nature Conservancy


Ho’okuleana LLC (Peter T Young)


The Cornell Lab of Ornithology


Akaku Maui Community Television

Coral Reef Alliance-Hawai’i

Mail Chimp

HWF Hawksbill Recovery Project

Maui Apple Users Society

Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project

Maui Invasive Species Committee

Maui Ocean Stewards

Whale Trust


Maui Film Festival


Maui Arts and Cultural Center


National Wildlife Refuge Association

Vertical Response

Eppley Institute for Parks and Public Lands

Hawaii Wildlife Center

Kanu Hawaii

Wild Apricot

Hawaii Ecotourism Association


Ahahui Malama I Ka Lokahi

Hunter Education Program (DLNR)

Maui Ocean Stewards

National Moth Week

NOAA’s Marine Debris Blog

Planet Stewards



CAN-SPAM Act of 2003. (15 U.S. Code, Chapter 103. Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing Act of 2003). Three basic requirements are defined in the CAN-SPAM Act: unsubscribe, content and sending behavior compliance. See: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/USCODE-2011-title15/USCODE-2011-title15-chap103

Wikipedia article on CAN-SPAM Act of 2003. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAN-SPAM_Act_of_2003

Wikipedia article on Email Spam. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-mail_spam


Rick Long, 2014, CC BY-NC-SA

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Muliwai & Wetland Watch

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Muliwai & Wetland Watch


What is a Wetland?

Wetlands are lands periodically covered or saturated by fresh or salt water and characterized by:

· Hydrology (water): from precipitation, surface flow or shallow groundwater.

  • Soils: poorly drained and saturated or covered with water for at least two weeks a year.
  • Vegetation (plants): adapted to grow, reproduce, and persist in water or saturated soils.

Wetlands can be seasonal or permanent, and are found in landscapes such as depressions, coastal shorelines, fringes along running or standing water, and Hawaii’s cloud forests. Wetlands are home to almost one third of threatened and endangered species in the U.S.  In the Hawaiian language, wai means water. Many places in Hawai‘i are named for wetlands and the extraordinary species that live there: Waikiki, Wai‘alae, Waikoloa, Waiāhole, Waipi‘o and countless more.


Hawaii’s Wetlands

Natural wetlands* most common in Hawai‘i:

  • Riverine wetlands are surface water systems found along the edge of rivers or streams. These areas are critical to the endemic koloa maoli.
  • Palustrine wetlands, such a marshes and bogs, are found in depressions where rain or groundwater collects. Hawaii’s rare montane bogs take millions of years to form.
  • Estuarine wetlands, such as swamps and mudflats, occur on coasts where streams empty into the ocean. These tidally influenced brackish (mixed fresh & salt water) areas provide habitat for fish, shellfish and waterbirds.
  • Marine wetlands, such as intertidal shorelines, seagrass beds, or tidepools, are saltwater systems, and provide habitat for many species harvested by humans for food.

Other Aquatic Habitats in Hawai‘i

  • Anchialine pools are land-locked systems in porous lava or limestone on coastal shorelines. These brackish pools are connected underground to both fresh and salt water, and are home to native shrimp like ‘ōpae ‘ula.
  • Aquaculture Habitats are wet areas created or modified for growing food, including wet taro (kalo) grown in a lo‘i (paddy) and fish ponds. These areas are used by native species, but usually lack the biodiversity and habitat functions found in natural wetlands.

Note: *Wetland Classification: The Cowardin Classification System is a descriptive method developed by the US Fish & Wildlife Service that defines wetlands according to their landscape position and water source. Within broad classes are wetlands known by common names: marsh, bog, mudflat, and swamp. Visit: www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet.
Source: Pacific Coast Joint Venture

What is a Muliwai?

1. John R.K. Clark: “Pool of brackish water formed by the separation of a stream mouth from the ocean by a sand bar.”

2. Mary Kawena Pukui: “River, river mouth, pool near mouth of a stream, as behind a sand bar, enlarged by ocean water left there by high tide; estuary.”

South Maui Muliwai & Wetland Monitor

Start Time:
Air Temperature:
Soil Condition: Wet / Dry
Water Condition: Wet / Dry


  • ‘Alae ke’oke’o – Fulica alai – Hawaiian Coot
  • ‘Auku’u – Nycticorax nycticorax – Black-crowned Night Heron
  • Ae‘o – Himantopus mexicanus knudseni – Hawaiian Stilt
  • Others:


  • Odonata – Damselflies & Dragonflies
  • Others:


  • Kaluhā – Bolboschoenus maritimus – Makai sedge, Saltmarsh bulrush
  • ʻĀkulikuli – Sesuvium portulacastrum – Sea pursalane
  • ‘Aki’aki – Sporobolus virginicus – Beach dropseed, Seashore rushgrass
  • Makaloa – Cyperus laevigatus – Smooth flatsedge
  • Others:


  • Invasive Species:
  • Human Impacts:
  • “Hotspots”:
  • “Hope Spots”:

Citizen Scientist Name:


Maui Nui Wetlands

Kaho’olawe island

  • Sailor’s Hat (anchialine pond unintentionally created by a simulated nuclear explosion)
    Lana’i island

  • Miki & Palawai Basins (lost)


Maui island


  • ʻĀhihi-Kīnaʻu Natural Area Reserve (DLNR) anchialine ponds are closed to the public
  • Cape Hanamanioa (anchialine ponds)
  • Kanahā Pond Waterbird Sanctuary (DLNR)
  • Kanaio Natural Area Reserve
  • Ke’anae Point
  • Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS) http://www.fws.gov/kealiapond/
  • Kīhei (lost)
  • Ki’owaiokiha/Violet Lake (Pu’u Kukui Watershed Preserve)
  • Makena State Park (DLNR)
  • Maluaka Wetlands (North Pu’u Ola’i Wetlands)
  • Middle Pu’u Ola’i Wetlands
  • Paniaka Fishpond (South Pu’u Ola’i Wetlands)
  • Nu’u Salt Pond & Wetland
  • Paukūkalo Wetland – Wa’ehu
  • Pu’u Eke
  • Pu’u Kukui
  • Ukumehame Firing Range
  • Waihe’e Coastal Dunes and Wetland Preserve (Hawaiian Islands Coastal Land Trust) http://www.hilt.org/protected-lands/maui/waihee-refuge/

Restored & Mitigated Wetlands

  • Azeka Mitigation Pond (Azeka Shopping Center, Kīhei)
  • Kulānihāko’i Gulch (Keiki O Ka ‘Aina Eco. Village Ohana, Kīhei)
  • La’ie Wetland Restoration Project (S. Kihei Road, Kīhei)
  • Longs Mitigation Pond (Longs Shopping Center, Kīhei)

Muliwai of South Maui (all in Kīhei)

  • Kalama Park
  • Kulānihāko’i Gulch at Kaonoulu
  • Kulanihakoi Gulch (Waipuilani North)
  • Waipuilani (Waipuilani South)
  • Waipuilani Middle Remnant Wetland

Montane Bogs

  • Big Bog (Haleakalā National Park)
  • Flat Top Bog (Haleakalā National Park)
  • Greensword Bog (Haleakalā National Park)
  • Mid Camp Bog (Haleakalā National Park)
  • New Bog (Haleakalā National Park)
  • State Bog (Hana Forest Reserve)

Moloka’i island

  • Kaa Seasonal Wetland, Mokio Preserve, West Moloka’i
  • Kakahai‘a National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS) http://www.fws.gov/kakahaia/
  • Kaunakakai Wasterwater Reclamation Facility (constructed wetland)
  • Koheo Wetland (salt marsh)
  • ‘Ohia’apilo Pond Bird Sanctuary (brackish)


Erickson, Terrell A. (Terrell Ann), Hawaii wetland field guide: an ecological and identification guide to wetlands and wetland plants of the Hawaiian islands.  © 2006 U.S. Environmental Protect Agency. Distributed by Bess Press Books, Honolulu, HI.

Giambelluca, T.W., Q. Chen, A.G. Frazier, J.P. Price, Y.-L. Chen, P.-S. Chu, J.K. Eischeid, and D.M. Delparte, 2012: Online Rainfall Atlas of Hawai‘i. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1.

Maui Ocean Stewards

Pacific Coast Joint Venture 

Pinterest Board


Rick Long, 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike CC BY-SA

Hawaii’s Wetlands Open to the Public

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Hawaii’s Wetlands Open to the Public



Alakai Wilderness Preserve (DOFAW)

See also Nā Pali-Kona Forest Reserve – No major roads lead directly into Nā Pali-Kona Forest Reserve, although there is access from minor roads off Waimea Canyon Drive.  http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/forestry/FRS/reserves/kauaifr/na-pali-kona-forest-reserve

Hulē‘ia National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS) – In order to protect the endangered species that live in Hulē‘ia National Wildlife Refuge, it is closed to the public but can be viewed at an overlook maintained by the State of Hawai‘i at the historic Menehune Fish Pond. http://www.fws.gov/huleia/



James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS)

Due to unexpected staff shortages the tour season will be shortened this year. The last tour of the 2012-2013 season is scheduled for December 20, 2012. We apologize for this inconvenience and hope to be back to a full tour schedule in 2013 -2014. http://www.fws.gov/jamescampbell/

Kawai Nui Marsh (DOFAW)

Hamakua-Kawainui Marsh Complex – A network of trails leads from Kapaʻa Quarry Road. http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/HKMC

Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS)

Visits to Pearl Harbor NWR can be organized in conjunction with an established volunteer project. For volunteer opportunities please contact the refuge office at (808) 637-6330. http://www.fws.gov/pearlharbor/



Kanaha Pond State Wildlife Sanctuary (DOFAW)

Kanaha Pond wildlife sanctuary is open from sunrise to sunset, between August 31 to March 31. Permits to visit inner sections of the sanctuary are no longer needed from the Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Entrance signs with rules for visiting are prominently posted at the two entry gates on the ocean side of the sanctuary. One access gate is near the Valley Isle Produce end of the sanctuary. The other gate is just past the tall naupaka hedge, half a mile to the east farther along Amala Place. No changes have been made for visiting the Observation Kiosk situated off Old Haleakala Highway, it remains open year-round. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanaha_Pond_State_Wildlife_Sanctuary

Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS).  http://www.fws.gov/kealiapond/

Makena State Park (Division of State Parks).  http://archives.starbulletin.com/2006/04/09/news/story05.html

Waihe’e Coastal Dunes & Wetlands Refuge (Hawaiian Islands Land Trust).  http://www.hilt.org/protected-lands/maui/waihee-refuge/



Kakahai‘a National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS)

The refuge is not open to the public; however, group visits may be available under a Special Use Permit – contact the Maui office at (808) 875-1582 for more information. Picnicking and offshore fishing are available at the refuge’s coastal park adjacent to Kamehameha V Highway (Hwy. 450).  http://www.fws.gov/kakahaia/

Pepeopae Bog is located in the Kamakou Preserve (The Nature Conservancy)

A boardwalk takes visitors through a moss-covered rain forest and pristine mountain bog before arriving at a spectacular overlook of Pelekunu Valley.  http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/hawaii/placesweprotect/kamakou.xml


Hawai’i – the Big Island

Honokōhau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (NPS).  http://www.nps.gov/kaho/index.htm

Kekaha Kai State Park (Division of State Parks)

ʻŌpaeʻula Pond behind Makalawena beach (the shore of Puʻu Aliʻi Bay)  http://www.hawaiistateparks.org/parks/hawaii/Index.cfm?park_id=47

Punalu’u Beach (Hawaii County Parks & Recreation)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punalu’u_Beach


Rick Long, 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike CC BY-SA

Ma’o – Hawaiian Cotton

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Ma’o – Hawaiian Cotton

Ma’o, or Hawaiian cotton is an endemic species (found only in Hawai’i) of cotton growing along the fence line at the Maui Canoe Club, the Visitor Center parking lot of the Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge, and along the Mokulele Highway near the Pu’unene Sugar Mill.


Maui Canoe Club, Sugar Beach

The name ma’o comes from the Hawaiian word ‘ōma’o for green and shares the same name as the native Hawaiian thrush, ‘ōma’o which has a greenish cast to its feathers. The alternative name huli huli means “hairy” in reference to the hairs on the surface of the leaves. The flowers, leaves and roots have been used in traditional Hawaiian medicine. Ma’o is used as a source of dye for kapa (tapa) for it’s yellow flowers and dull silver-green leaves. Both the flower and the seed are used in making leis. Although the fibers were once used in Hawai’i for stuffing pillows, it has not been used as a fabric.


Gossypium tomentosum – Hawaiian cotton – ma’o

It is closely related to American cotton, and may have been carried to the Hawaiian islands as a seed in the winds, or in the droppings of a bird. It grows naturally in the hot, dry, wind-swept coastal environment and tolerates heat, drought, and salt spray. It is thought to be pollinated by moths, while other species of cotton are pollinated by bees. The flowers of the ma’o are also different from other species and will stay open during the night, while others whither by the end of the day.

The ma’o, helped to save the modern cotton industry. When ma’o is crossed with other cotton strains, the resulting hybrids are less attractive to insect pests that destroy cotton crops.


Cotton bolls

It is found on all islands except the big island of Hawai’i, and is now extinct on the island of Kaua’i. It is threatened by coastal development. Genetic dilution is another concern with genetically modified cotton being planted in the state. It was previously considered vulnerable by the ICUN Red List of Endangered Species (2004).


Abbott, Isabella A. Lā’au Hawai’i: Traditional Hawaiian Uses of Plants. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawai’i. 1992

Hawaiian Ethnobotany Database. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai’i. Website: http://data.bishopmuseum.org/ethnobotanydb/ethnobotany.php?b=d&ID=mao_G

Rauch, Fred D., Heidi L. Bornhorst, and David L. Hensley. Ma’o – Hawaiian Cotton. Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai’i. January, 1997

Wianecki, Shannon. “The Right Stuff” in Maui Nō Ka ‘Oi Magazine. May-June, 2012


Photos by Rick Long

Rick Long, 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike CC BY-SA

Observation Skills: Underwater Habitats

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Sky, Land & Ocean

Observation Skills: Underwater Habitats


clip_image002 REEF Habitat Codes

High Profile Reef is a reef where most coral structures rise four or more feet off the bottom.

Photo: NOAA



Low Profile Reef is a reef where most coral structures average less than four feet off the bottom.

Kahekili Reef by Darla White

Rocky Boulders/Volcanic is where the bottom consists of ridges, tunnels, caverns or boulders that were formed by volcanic lava.

Photo: NOAA



Wall is a sheer drop-off of over 25 feet which faces open water.

Photo: Molokini Back Wall

Ledge is a single or few sharp drops in bottom topography of three or more feet that may or may not face open water. Example: Gray’s Reef NMS.




Sand is where the bottom is mostly sand.

Photo: NOAA

Artificial includes ship wrecks, platforms, dumped debris or other artificially created habitats.

Photo: Keawakapu Artificial Reef by Rick Long


Additional Reef Habits

Patch Reef are coral formations that are isolated from other coral reef formations by sand, sea grass, or other habitats and that have no organized structural axis relative to the contours of the shore or shelf edge.

Photo: NOAA



Pavement with Sand Channels are habitats of pavement with alternating sand/surge channel formations that are oriented perpendicular to the shore or bank/shelf escarpment. The sand/surge channels of this feature have low vertical relief relative to spur and groove formations and are typically erosional in origin.

Photo: NOAA

Spur and Groove habitat having alternating sand and coral formations that are oriented perpendicular to the shore or bank/shelf escarpment. Coral (spurs) typically have a high vertical relief relative to pavement with sand channels and are separated from each other by 1-5 meters of sand or hard bottom (grooves)

Photo: NOAA


Many dive sites feature complex habitats. The (1) most dominant type where you are (2) collecting most of your data is the habitat type to record.



Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Website: http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/products/biogeography/hawaii_cd_07/htm/structure.aspx

REEF (Reef Environmental Education Foundation). Website: http://reef.org/

Williams, Ivor, and Russell Sparks, and Celia Smith. Status of Maui’s Coral Reefs. Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawai’i Department of Land and Natural Resources, 2007. Website: http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/pubs/MauiReefDeclines.pdf


Rick Long, 2012, 2013 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike CC BY-SA

Place Names of Ma’alaea Bay

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Place Names of Ma’alaea Bay

West to East: Kapoli Beach Park to Kalepolepo Beach Park


Google - Kealia Pond region

Kapoli Beach Park

Kapoli means “the bosom” is the name of a spring that is said to have been located behind Buzz’s Wharf Restaurant.

Ma’alaea Harbor

Ma’alaea is perhaps a contraction of Maka ‘alaea meaning “ocherous earth beginnings”. 

Kanaio Village

This location is not to be confused with Kanaio on the Southern Side of Maui.

Haycraft Beach Park

Haycraft Beach Park is at the end of Hauoli Street, past all of the condos.


Palalua is the beach and near shore waters from Kanio Village to the river mouth.  Pala lua means “yellow leaf”.

Ma’alaea Flats

Ma’alaea Flats, or Salt Flats, or Mud Flats is between Haycraft Beach Park, and the Keālia Coastal Boardwalk.  This area was the site of the Ma’alaea Airport in the 1920s.  Local families gathered pa’akai (sea salt) during the dry season.


Outlet opened 2008

Outlet Plugged 2008

Sand Plug

Sand Plug is the name currently used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the River Mouth.  The so-called river is the outlet for Keālia Pond which receives ground water from both the Mauna Kahalawai (the West Maui Mountain) and Mauna Haleakalā. 

Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service maintain a wetlands and coastal dune habitat for several native species: Hawaiian Coot, Hawaiian Stilt, and Black Crowned Night Heron. Keālia means “salt encrusted”.  The main pond receives water from five streams and two mountains, but primarily from the Waikapū Stream.

Kanuimanu Fish Ponds

A commercial fish pond that raised catfish and prawns was taken over by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.


Kale’ia is the beach and near shore waters from the River Mouth to Waiakoa Gulch.  Kale’ia means “the abundance”.   The current home of the Maui Canoe Club is Kale’ia Beach, aka Sugar Beach. 

Kalae Pōhaku

Kalae Pōhaku is name of the beach at the Kihei Canoe Club which is part of the beach at Waiakoa Gulch.   Kalae Pōhaku means “stone carver”, or “the stony promontory”. 

Old Kīhei Landing

Old Kīhei Landing was a 200 foot long wood pier from 1890 to 1952.  The wooden pier burned in 1959 and a stone footing is still visible. Other names are Kīhei Pier and Kīhei Wharf.

maui beach ww ii

Maui beach defenses during World War II

landing ship putting troops and tractors ashore in Mā`alaea

Beach landings during World War II

Maui Poina Park

Maui Poina Park, or Mai Poina ‘Oe Ia’u Beach Park was previously called Kihei Memorial Park.  The name is a gentle command in Hawaiian that means “forget me not”.

Kalepolepo Beach Park

Kalepolepo Beach Park was the site of a village.  Kalepolepo means “dirt” or “dirty water”.  Adjacent to the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary.

Kōʻieʻie Loko Iʻa

One of fish ponds on the Kīhei coast has been restored at Kōʻieʻie Loko Iʻa, directly in front of Kalepolepo Beach Park.  Kōʻieʻie means “rapid current”.


Clark, John R. K. The Beaches of Maui County. Honolulu, Hawaiʻi: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 1989.


Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for Keālia Pond National Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. January, 2012.  Website: http://www.fws.gov/kealiapond/planning.html


Kīhei Canoe Club. Website: http://www.kiheicanoeclub.com/


Ma’alaea Community Association. Website: http://www.mcamaui.org


Maciolek, J. A.  Aquatic Ecosystems of Kealia Floodplain and Maalaea Bay, Maui.  Honolulu, HI.  Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Technical Report. 1971.


Maui Canoe Club.  Website: http://www.mauicanoeclub.org/


Maui Ocean Center.  Website: http://www.mauioceancenter.com/


Pacific Disaster Center.  Website: http://www.pdc.org


Pukui, Mary Kawena, Samuel H. Elbert, and Mary Kawena Pukui. Place names of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. 1966, Revised 1974.


Note: information on place names is becoming known with the recording of family and church histories, and with the translation of Hawaiian language newspapers.


Rick Long, 2013 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike CC BY-SA

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